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When we were children we were often taught that we could wish upon the first star that we saw in the evening sky. After that wish was made and if we believed hard enough our wish would come true. Eventually, our childhood fantasies gave way to fact as we became more educated. This education was accomplished through astronomy classes, space exploration and other educational means.The word astronomy is comprised of two Greek words. The Greek word astro means star shaped or...

Buying Your First Astronomy Telescope

Buying Your First Astronomy TelescopeWhen we were children we were often taught that we could wish upon the first star that we saw in the evening sky. After that wish was made and if we believed hard enough our wish would come true. Eventually, our childhood fantasies gave way to fact as we became more educated. This education was accomplished through astronomy classes, space exploration and other educational means.The word astronomy is comprised of two Greek words. The Greek word astro means star shaped or star and pertains to outer space. The word onomy literally means the study of. Therefore, astronomy is the study of the stars.One of the major tools that assists amateur and professional astronomers in understanding and respecting the galaxy is the astronomy telescope. When looking to purchase a good "astronomy telescope" there are a number of factors that you can keep in mind. First, of all consider some practical suggestions, remember it is about the diameter of the lens, and make sure your telescope has a solid stand.Practical SuggestionsBefore you purchase your astronomy telescope it is important to conduct your research. One way of conducting this research can be accomplished by accessing the Internet and learning more about telescopes. Some of the questions that you should endeavor to answer surround what features to look for in a telescope, approximate cost, recommended brands, etc.Another practical suggestion, before you purchase your astronomy telescope, is to "test drive" a telescope. This can be accomplished by joining an astronomy club. Often these clubs will have a stargazing event which will allow you to peer through the telescopes owned by the various members.Another way of conducting research, prior to purchasing an astronomy telescope, is to ask the members in the club as to what telescope they would recommend. The key is education. Listen for the features they recommend, brand names, the diameter of the lens, price, etc.Also, you may come across a member of the club who is considering the purchase of a new telescope. If so, you may be able to purchase their used telescope.Diameter Of The LensWhen considering the purchase of an astronomy telescope it is important to remember what is the key feature surrounding your purchase. That key feature should focus on the diameter of the lens of the telescope and not its advertised magnification.This is because the diameter of the lens equates to the amount of light that can be received by the telescope. Therefore, the larger the diameter of the lens the more light that is captured. This in turn allows for the image that you are viewing to become more visible.Solid BaseAnother very important feature when considering the purchase of your astronomy telescope is to ensure that it has a solid base. Generally, these bases or mounts are tripods.It is important that when the telescope is mounted on these bases that the telescope does not shake or move. Obviously, any movement by the telescope, when peering into space, will distort the image being viewed and provide a negative experience.

Learning About Voip Solutions - Top Questions And Answers

Learning About Voip Solutions - Top Questions And Answers

Technology is increasing daily and plenty of consumers are facing new challenges about learning new forms of communication using computer hardware or software. The changes in our world raise many questions, and these common questions and answers focus on one growing area of communication, IP Telephony or Voice over Internet Protocol. These questions that people often ask are heard all over these days, but our answers will help explain much about this new phase of keeping in touch with others.What exactly is IP telephony?IP telephony is a term that refers to VOIP technology or Voice over Internet Protocol. It is essentially the routing of voice conversations over a network, such as the internet, or any IP based interface. IP telephony, Internet telephony, Voice over Internet Protocol, VOIP, Broadband telephony, Broadband phone, and Voice over Broadband are all terms that relatively refer to this in the same way. If someone mentions any of those terms, they are likely referring to the notion of IP telephony. It is a growing aspect to communications, too, and many people are starting to use it in their homes to help with their communications aspects.Where did IP telephony come from?IP telephony is a commercial evolution of the 1973 project called "Network Voice Protocol". Network Voice Protocol was a computer networking project that was used to transport human speech patterns over communications networks. It was developed by internet researcher Danny Cohen of the Information Sciences Institute and was created to demonstrate that it was possible to develop a feasible blueprint for two-way voice communications over a digital network. The Network Voice Protocol project was used to send speech between sites on the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network or ARPANET. ARPANET is a United States Department of Defense project designed to produce a global network. It also became an ancestor of the internet.Isn't a VOIP user "handcuffed" to an internet connection if they want to use the phone?Certainly a drawback to the VOIP system is its reliance on internet connection. This reliance on an entirely separate service can make using VOIP telephony equipment seem to be quite complicated, at times. The quality of the connection through the VOIP system is also very reliant on the quality of the internet connection, lending to a distinct relationship between the internet connection and the phone connection that many users regret. VOIP systems can, however, use conventional phone connections for connectivity and can use other business grade network systems like a T1 connection in some cases. Many business providers, in fact, only hook the system up to a T1 connection to enable permanent connection to their network.Just how reliable is IP telephony, anyway?As conventional landline phones are connected to telephone company phone lines, they may actually be kept going in the event of power outages or other occurrences that may interrupt the service. Most household VOIP broadband services, however, rely on a modem connection or other powered services to make the phone work. In these cases, a VOIP phone may not be the most reliable service you can have. On the other hand, there are many options you can take to create a more reliable service for your phone so that it will not be interrupted by power outage or other issues.What are some major VOIP or IP telephony providers?There are many providers that are hopping aboard the VOIP bandwagon. Commercial use VOIP providers include Broadvoice, Primus Canada, AT&T CallVantage, Skype, SunRocket, Lingo, VoicePulse, http://VOIP.com, Vonage, and even Yahoo Messenger. Many of these services also have a phone package for home users that enable the same great service to take place within a home setting for Voice over Internet Protocol telephony.

Who Created The First Paper Shredder? Asks Office Zone

Who Created The First Paper Shredder? Asks Office Zone

Documents have been shredded in the United States for decades. Ever since the Egyptians created papyrus in 4000 B.C., there has been a need to destroy documents. When a mistake was made or information needed to be destroyed, the papyrus could be easily torn up or burned. Things have changed a lot since then.The first mechanical shredder was created in 1935 in Germany. Adolf Ehinger used standard kitchen tools to create a device that would make paper unreadable. His inspiration for creating a paper shredder was to help him get rid of anti-Nazi material. After being confronted by Nazi soldiers about literature in his garbage can, he decided he needed to find a better way to destroy it.Adolfs biggest inspiration for his "paper shredder" was a hand-cranked pasta maker. Using the same concept, he created a mechanical device that sat in a wood frame. He later fit it with an electric motor. People thought his device was pointless. During the 1940s he began selling his invention to various government entities and embassies.Due to the Cold War, Adolfs invention became more popular. In 1959 he created the first cross-cut paper shredder. Cross cut paper shredders cut paper in multiple directions, making it even harder to decipher the shredded material. Strip cut paper shredders, which typically create -inch strips of paper, are not as secure. During that period of time, shredders were typically only used by the government.Shredders have played an important role in history, being associated with cover-ups. The Nixon re-election committee used a Fellowes paper shredder during Watergate. Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North used an Intimus 007-S shredder to shred documents during the Iran-Contra scandal.Cross-cut shredders grew in popularity in 1979 after the American Embassy in Tehran was overrun by Iranian militants. Documents at the embassy where only strip-cut, allowing the pieces to be pieced back together by Persian carpet weavers. Due to the Iran incident, the government now requires strict shredding conditions.Today, shredders are used in almost all business environments. New laws require that just about everything be shredded. Shredders can now be found in homes, businesses, educational institutions and more. Shredders are now created to not only shred paper, but some can also shred DVDs, CDs, floppy disks and more. You can see a wide variety of paper shredders used today by visiting Office Zone.

Telephone Systems In The Office

Telephone Systems In The Office

The telephone is probably the most important and the most used method of communication today. All over the world, telephones are being used extensively, whether in homes or in offices. When it comes to office phone systems, the system is particularly designed so that any number of users can use and share the same telephone lines, rather than having to use individual phones. Telephone systems like these are specifically designed for use by several people in a single location, like companies and large offices. Using these types of phone systems can mean lesser expenses for businesses, since it is proven to be more cost-effective than using regular telephone systems.PBX The PBX telephone system, or Private Branch Exchange, are phone systems which are designed specifically for corporate use in offices. The main purpose of a private branch exchange system is to create a private communication network among all those who use and share the external telephone lines. PBX systems are ideal for large and medium-sized companies and businesses. What makes this phone system cost-effective is that users can now share a few external phone lines, as compared to having all individual users having their own external lines.Using a PBX phone system allows a person to communicate with another user on the telephone network by just dialing a 3 or 4 digit extension number. Plus, PBX systems also have additional features like voicemail, reminders, screen displays, and options to screen all calls. PBX phone services for offices may also include automated answering services, auto-generated messages for callers, and live call transferring.Automated Attendants The Automated Attendant is an accessory used in most office phone systems for answering phone calls by way of automatically generating electronic messages. Using this accessory or tool, callers will be allowed to route themselves within the phone system through a series of menu prompts. Office voice mail systems are usually equipped with a basic automated attendant system.Automated Call Distributor Another phone accessory commonly used in office phone systems is the Automated Call Distributor or ACD. This accessory provides an efficient way of routing all incoming calls between programmed extension numbers. The most common locations for Automated Call Distribution systems are call centers, or any other office or location that has to process several incoming calls all at the same time.Computer Telephony Integration The CTI, or Computer Telephony Integration tool, is used for connecting an existing phone system to a computer, or computer network. Important information is automatically retrieved from incoming calls, routed to the computers, where the data is processed for practical business purposes. There is another tool called the Key System Unit, or KSU, which contains useful features like call forwarding, extension dialing, and options for using voice mail. VOIP systems, or Voice Over Internet Protocol, allows users to communicate with other VOIP systems and use digital data through the Internet.These office "telephone systems" are incorporated into the standard system of analog telephones, fax machines, cordless and cellular phones, using a traditional telephone network, and they also have the option of communicating through the Internet using VOIP.

Advantages Of Using An Administration Membership Software

When your organization is still young, you probably won't have any problems managing your members and their activities. However, once your organization begins to grow, you might have some difficulty maintaining your database using just a simple pen-and-paper system or a basic program included in your Mac or PC. When this happens, the best thing for you to do is to use a membership administration software.What is a membership administration software?A membership administration software is a management system that allows you to maintain, modify and update records of your members, regardless of whether you're a small group or a large organization. It is a program designed to suit the needs of clubs, organizations and associations, allowing them to perform a variety of tasks, ranging from the simple to the complicated.What you'll getMost membership administration software are available as basic applications, containing just the right kind of features that will allow you to keep track and manage your club's memberships. Often, a basic software will include enough features to maintain a membership database. This will let you input important member information such as name, address, contact numbers, paid membership or subscription dues and other personal and professional details. A basic version will also allow you to use features such as mail merge and direct email.The basic version will work well for you if your organization has 10 to less than 1,000 members and if you have a structure that is simple and more direct. This membership administration software should be enough to help you keep your records, input new entries, perform modifications, keep track of subscriptions paid and give you a general or detailed reporting.However, if your organization has grown or uses a more complicated structure, you might benefit more from higher versions of membership administration software. It contains everything that is offered in a basic software, except that these versions allow you to maintain a database ranging from thousands of members to unlimited membership.These versions also allow you to store more detailed personal and professional information and even classify your members depending on their status or the type of membership they chose or paid for. You can even build your members' relationships to other organizations such as a sponsor, an employer or an organization similar to yours.Other featuresMany membership administration software go beyond the usual storage-and-database features. Most of them can even help you keep track of membership attendance, inactive memberships and family subscriptions. You can even perform some bookkeeping duties by using the software to keep track of your organization's cash receipts and bank reports. Payments and incidental expenses may also be recorded using this software. Membership administration software also offer features that allow you to record your members' special interests, schedule activities like lectures and conferences and even input the competencies required for each of your members.Why you should get a membership administration softwareIf you foresee growth in your club or organization, it would be a wise investment to use a membership administration software. Whether you're buying it for single or multiple-use, this application will make all your membership storage and collection duties a lot easier. Not only that, you will find it more convenient later when you need to conduct tracking, monitoring and even auditing. All the information you need are already available at the click of a button.

A Comparison Of Dish Network And Cable Television

It's a very competitive business world out there, and the situation is not different in the home entertainment sector.At the moment cable television operators are fighting the battle of their lives with their satellite counterparts. What is at stake is a big crown and whoever comes out on top will go home with the hearts and wallets of millions of subscribers.But midway into this war of attrition, all discerning observers knew where the pendulum will swing in the end. And you the reader will also realize this because by the time you are through with this you will be wondering why anyone still maintains subscription with a cable television company.Dish Network is unarguably the biggest satellite TV operator in the U.S, and with its quality service and cutting edge technology, there is no way any cable television firm can compete with it for business, and that is a fact.In terms of value, Dish Network offers far more programming channels and with a low entry price of $20, compared to the $70 charged by cable companies and with far fewer channels to boot. Are you getting the drift now?In reality Dish Network offers hundreds of channels, but the best cable companies can muster is just about a hundred, and for a fact can never provide more than 150. Want to know the implication of this? When you are provided with fewer program channels then your options will be very limited.With Dish Network you can get additional channels like ESPN Gameday, NHL on the Ice, and NBA League Pass. These are packages no cable operator can provide.But what really nailed the coffin of cable satellite television is its limited availability. Anyone that desires cable TV service must be resident in or near a mid sized town. On the contrary Dish Network signals can be received anywhere as long as the satellite dish is aimed at the southern sky.The rather high cost of cable television subscription can be traced to the amount of data that can be sent over a medium, which is technically known as the bandwidth.By nature, the amount of data cables can carry is very limited, but the companies are trying to get over this problem by resorting to the use of higher capacity cables, which unfortunately still fall short of the requirements.Dish Network however transmits its signals using electromagnetic waves which are not constrained by bandwidth problems. This is the reason why operator keeps up with subscribers demand and provides better service than their cable rivals.

Summary

When we were children we were often taught that we could wish upon the first star that we saw in the evening sky. After that wish was made and if we believed hard enough our wish would come true. Eventually, our childhood fantasies gave way to fact as we became more educated. This education was accomplished through astronomy classes, space exploration and other educational means.The word astronomy is comprised of two Greek words. The Greek word astro means star shaped or...